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What are the Major Diseases During Pregnancy?

Everyone wishes to have a healthy and safe pregnancy. It is essential to take proper care of your health during pregnancy. This ensures that you deliver your baby without any complications. However, there are certain diseases by which you would be affected during the gestation period. Make sure that you stay informed about the common diseases of pregnancy. Being aware of the diseases in pregnancy can help in treating them at an early stage. This can save the lives of both the mother & the baby. Here is a detailed overview of the list of diseases during pregnancy.

Book an online appointment with Dr. Nidhi Agrawal for Pregnancy & Gynecology related issues.

What are Pregnancy Diseases?

These are some of the major medical diseases that occur during pregnancy and affect the mother's or baby’s health. Early diagnosis of these diseases can help you avoid severe complications. Make sure you visit your doctor regularly when you are pregnant.


Anemias in pregnancy is quite common. Most women have very low red blood cells during pregnancy, which makes them anemic. Iron deficiency can make women weak when they are pregnant. They would feel tired and experience difficulty breathing due to this disease. This can affect the baby’s health. Intake of iron supplements and iron-rich food can help to increase your hemoglobin levels.


Pregnant women suffer from anxiety and depression, and this greatly influences the overall health of the baby. There are various reasons pertaining to this condition. Hormonal changes are the primary cause of depression and stress during pregnancy. The other reasons are family history, complications in pregnancy, previous abortions, etc. Emotional problems in pregnant women can result in headaches, breathing issues and chest pain. It is important to know that this condition is completely treatable. Proper medical counselling & support from family can help pregnant women cope with anxiety and depression.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum (Morning Sickness)

Many pregnant women experience nausea or vomiting in the first trimester of their pregnancy. They experience mild symptoms of morning sickness. But, some women experience severe complications that cause hyperemesis gravidarum. Hormonal changes are the main reason for this disease. A proper diet and intake of multivitamin tablets can help to manage this condition.


Pregnant women are at high risk of getting infected by bacteria or viruses. This can lead to diseases, namely STI, UTI, bacterial vaginosis, etc. There are chances for the infections to reach the baby in the uterus. So it is important to treat infections at the earliest to avoid complications for the baby and the mother.


A pregnant woman can develop high blood pressure levels in pregnancy, usually after 20th week of pregnancy. High BP readings may be associated with swelling of feet and/or leakage of protein in urine. This is broadly termed PIH (pregnancy-induced hypertension) and is categorised into Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. She may experience excessive weight gain, headaches, blurred vision and seizures due to uncontrolled BP. Baby can have growth restriction, and there can be a reduction in amniotic fluid levels. Chances of preterm birth and NICU stay increase. At every checkup, BP is recorded to detect these changes early, intervene, and bring down the complication rate. They are:

  • Damage to internal organs
  • Preterm delivery
  • Seizures
  • Abruption of placenta
  • Reduced growth of the baby in the fetus

Gestational Diabetes

It is the onset of diabetes during pregnancy. A rise in sugar levels usually occurs during mid-pregnancy or at the end of pregnancy. Make sure to check your blood sugar levels regularly during your checkups. There are chances for high blood pressure as well when affected by gestational diabetes. Your baby would become big when you suffer from this condition. Due to uncontrolled sugar values, babies can develop congenital anomalies, large for gestational age or macrosomia (overweight) babies and increased amniotic fluid. This can lead to chances of birth

trauma, instrumental birth, cesarean section and NICU stay. Timely diagnosis and management can help prevent such complications through diet, exercise and medication. Medicines or insulin is prescribed based on the sugar levels.

Genetic Disorders

Any defect in the chromosomes of your baby can result in growth abnormalities. This can greatly affect the well-being of your baby. Your baby may suffer from Down syndrome, growth disorders and gene disorders. There are several diagnostic tests to detect this condition at an early stage of pregnancy.

Also Read : Amniocentesis: Everything You Want to Know

Thyroid Disorder

Abnormal thyroid level is a common health issue in pregnancy. Hyperthyroidism affects the growth of the baby, and hypothyroidism can affect the brain development of the baby.

Thromboembolic Disorder

This happens when there is an evident blood clot in blood vessels during pregnancy. This can block any of the arteries and lead to the death of pregnant women. Swelling in the leg is the main symptom of this disease. Immediate medical intervention can avoid complications due to this disease.

Pulmonary Embolism

It is the presence of blood clots in the lungs of pregnant women. It is more likely to occur during or after childbirth. It is a condition which is associated with several risk factors: obesity, family history, irritable bowel syndrome, etc. You’ll notice swelling in your leg and difficulty in breathing when you suffer from pulmonary embolism. Your doctor would suggest blood thinners to avoid blood clots.


The actual cause of cholestasis of pregnancy is unknown. It is a liver disease which affects pregnant women during the third trimester. It is due to the increase in the secretion of bile acids. This can result in the premature birth of your baby.

The above gives a clear overview of the common diseases in pregnancy.


1. What are the most common diseases in pregnancy?

The common diseases during pregnancy which affect the health of the baby are gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, anaemia, preterm birth, congenital disorder, chromosomal defects, infections and pulmonary embolism. These diseases must be treated immediately without any delay to avoid risk in pregnancy.

2. What diseases are harmful in pregnancy?

There are some diseases that are harmful in pregnancy. These diseases can affect the growth and well-being of the baby in the fetus. Some of the harmful diseases are preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, cholestasis, pulmonary embolism, anemia, placenta previa and infections.

3. What are ten high-risk pregnancy conditions?

Here is the list of ten high-risk pregnancy conditions leading to complications for the mother and the baby.

  1. Preeclampsia
  2. Gestational diabetes
  3. Placenta previa
  4. Vaginal Bleeding
  5. Cholestasis
  6. Pulmonary embolism
  7. STI
  8. Chromosomal disorders
  9. Epilepsy
  10. Low amniotic fluid

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  7. Best Pregnancy Packages in Noida

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