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8 Most Common Gynaecological Disorders

April 30, 2024

Gynaecological disorders are very common, and most women suffer from some gynaecological problems at some point in their lives. While some are very common, you may not be aware of a few problems until you or someone close to you suffers from them. If you have been searching for a list of gynaecological problems along with their symptoms and treatment options for your quick reference, you have come to the right place.

Book an online appointment with Dr. Supritha Rangaswamy for Pregnancy & Gynecology related issues.

What is a Gynaecological Disorder?

Any condition that affects the normal functioning of a female's reproductive system is known as gynaecological disorder. A female's reproductive organs include her breasts, the organs in her pelvic and abdominal area, in addition to her vagina, vulva, ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus.

Who are Affected by Gynaecological Disorders?

A person born as a female (with female reproductive organs) can suffer from gynaecological problems or disorders at any point in her life. Gynaecological disorders do not affect just menstruating women. Young girls and older women who have attained menopause can also suffer from some gynaecological issues.

The Most Common Gynaecological Disorders

Some gynaecological issues are very common and frequently discussed among women. Here is a detailed list of gynaecological diseases, with each symptom and treatment options. Remember, gynaecological diseases and treatment can vary depending on your unique condition and doctor. This list is for reference and to give you an idea about what to expect.


Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a common gynaecological disorder that causes a hormonal imbalance. Women suffering from PCOS tend to produce more androgens, leading to an imbalance in their reproductive hormones.


Women suffering from PCOS can experience one or more of the following:

  • Irregular periods
  • Abnormal hair growth (face, chest, arms and legs)
  • Obesity
  • Skin issues like skin tags, acne, and dark skin patches
  • Cysts
  • Thinning hair (head)
  • Infertility


If you are suffering from PCOS, your doctor may suggest the following treatments:

  • Hormonal birth control pills to stabilise your hormone levels and regulate periods when you are not trying to conceive.
  • Insulin-sensitising medication if your body is unable to process insulin properly.
  • Medications to block the androgen production.
  • Diet change and regular exercises.

2. Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disorder in which the endometrial-like tissue starts growing outside the uterus. The endometrial tissue can start growing in various places, such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, bladder, bowel, or even the rectum.


Women who have endometriosis can experience the following symptoms:

  • Excess pain during menstruation
  • Severe abdominal cramps hindering routine
  • Painful sex
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Pain when passing urine or stools during your period
  • Digestive issues during your period, like diarrhoea, constipation, indigestion or feeling sick


If you have endometriosis, your doctor may suggest the following:

  • Hormone therapy to control or reduce the symptoms – Hormone pills, Progestin therapy, Gn-RH medicines.
  • Surgery to remove the tissue formation – laparoscopy, laparotomy or robotic surgery.
  • Fertility treatment if you are having trouble conceiving.
  • Hysterectomy in severe cases.

3. Urinary Incontinence

Urinary incontinence is one of the most common gynaecological diseases that predominantly affects older women or women who have given birth. It is the loss of bladder control, leading to urine leakage. The different types of urinary incontinence are:

  • Urge incontinence (constant urge to pee)
  • Stress incontinence (urine leaks when laughing, coughing, sneezing)
  • Overflow incontinence (bladder does not empty fully)
  • Mixed incontinence (combination of one or more of the above).


Symptoms you may experience in addition to the symptoms that denote the type of incontinence (mentioned above) are:

  • Leaking urine when performing everyday activities or when sleeping
  • Unable to hold the urine until you reach the toilet
  • Unable to control urine after having a sudden and strong urge to urinate


The most common treatment options for urinary incontinence are:

  • Exercises to strengthen pelvic muscles
  • Medications
  • Lifestyle changes (diet change, avoiding lifting heavy objects, etc.)
  • Vaginal insert
  • Procedures and surgeries based on the cause of incontinence.

4. Menstrual Disorders

Many women suffer from different types of menstrual disorders. It can be irregular periods, heavy or very light bleeding during periods, painful period cramps, bleeding between periods or even absence of menstruation (amenorrhea).


The symptoms can be very similar to what you experience just before or during menstruation.

  • Abnormal bleeding during menstruation
  • Pain or severe cramps during menstruation
  • Mood swings or depression
  • Emotional distress
  • Frequent headaches (especially during periods)
  • Bloating or feeling full during periods
  • Lack of menstruation
  • Irregular periods
  • Infertility or difficulty conceiving.


The treatments will vary depending on the type of disorder. The most common treatments doctors suggest before opting for surgery are changes in diet and lifestyle or medications to control the symptoms. If symptoms do not reduce, your doctor can perform certain procedures to reduce the symptoms.

5. Infertility

Infertility is one of the most common issues a woman visits her gynaecologist for. When a couple is unable to conceive even after trying for an entire year, it can indicate a fertility issue with one or both partners.


A woman does not realise this gynaecological issue until she starts actively trying to get pregnant. So, her main symptom is difficulty to conceive or to stay pregnant.


Various treatment options for fertility issues include –

  • Medications to assist fertility
  • Surgeries (fallopian tube block, endometriosis, fibroids, PCOS, etc.)
  • Assisted reproductive Techniques like IUI or IVF.

6. Ovarian Cysts

An ovarian cyst is a sac filled with fluid or semisolid material that can form in one or both ovaries. Many women have ovarian cysts. Some common types are follicular cysts, corpus luteum cysts, cystadenomas, teratomas, endometriomas, and ovarian cancer.


Most women do not realise they have ovarian cysts until they cause some problems in their menstrual cycles or when trying to get pregnant. Some tell-tale signs of ovarian cysts are:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Painful menstruation
  • Pain during sex
  • Bloating or feeling full all the time
  • Backaches if the cysts are too low or heavy
  • PCOS
  • Unexplained weight gain
  • Fertility issues in very rare cases.


A regular pelvic exam can help identify such ovarian cysts at the earliest. Rarely these ovarian cysts can cause serious complications that require treatments. Some treatment options are:

  • Wait and watch – some cysts go away on their own.
  • Medications to stop ovulation and the formation of cysts.
  • Surgery to remove the cysts.

7. Vaginal Discharge

A woman's vagina sheds discharge at all times. It is how it keeps itself clean and safe from infections. However, if the regular discharge changes in colour, has a foul smell or increases in quantity, it can indicate a potential issue that requires medical treatment.


If you have an issue with your vaginal discharge, you may notice the following:

  • An increase in the discharge
  • Change in the consistency or texture
  • Change in colour of the discharge
  • Irritation, itching or pain around the vaginal area
  • Dry vagina


Some common treatment options for issues with vaginal discharge are:

  • Medications (antifungal medications or antibiotics) to treat infections.
  • Procedures to remove foreign objects from the vagina.
  • opical application in case of very dry vagina.

8. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is an infection that affects the pelvic organs like the uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries. It occurs when certain bacteria enter the vagina and spread to the reproductive organs. The most common cause of PID is sexually transmitted diseases. However, in rare cases, even the regular bacteria present in a woman's vagina can cause PID.


The most common symptoms of PID are:

  • Pain or tenderness in the lower belly area
  • Yellow or greenish vaginal discharge with a strong odour
  • Fever
  • Pain during sex
  • Vomiting or nausea
  • Irregular periods
  • Burning sensation when urinating.


The most common treatment for PID is antibiotics that can last up to 2 whole weeks. In case of pregnancy or an abscess, additional antibiotics can be given through an IV. Your doctor will also ask you to avoid having unprotected sex during this time to avoid passing on the infection.

When to See a Doctor?

Consulting a gynaecologist is like consulting any other doctor specialising in one particular area of human health. When you notice any of the above-listed symptoms or something unusual with your reproductive system, you should consult your gynaecologist immediately. It is important to diagnose issues as soon as possible to receive the best possible care and treatment.


Gynaecological disorders are quite common and usually not a cause for alarm. However, in rare cases, if left untreated, they can lead to serious issues. The good news is that with the advancements in technology and the availability of gynaecological care, women can take proactive steps to prevent or address such disorders at the earliest.


1. What is the most common gynaecological condition?

The most common gynaecological condition many women suffer from is irregular periods or infertility. These are the most common issues women visit a gynaecologist for.

2. What are Gynaecological disorders?

Any issue with the female reproductive organs or conditions affecting the normal functioning of her reproductive system is a gynaecological disorder.

3. What are gynaecological symptoms?

When a woman experiences something unusual around the pelvic region or in any of her reproductive organs, it is a gynaecological symptom. These symptoms can indicate a potential issue with her reproductive system that requires medical attention.

4. What is the most common gynaecological condition in children?

Changes in vaginal discharge, inflammation or swelling in the vulvar or vaginal tissues are the most common gynaecological issues faced by children. For girls close to puberty, dry vagina or changes in vaginal discharge are also common.

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