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Which treatment is the best for male fertility

March 13, 2024

Infertility is not restricted to the women folk. Fertility is important for both men and women and infertility can affect men too. Male infertility is not very rare and medications or treatments can help men just like it can help women. Are you suffering from male infertility? You are not alone and there is nothing wrong in seeking help for the same.

Book an Appointment with Dr. Monica Narang for all your Fertility concerns

What is Male Infertility?

Male infertility is the male’s inability to impregnate his female partner even after a full year of unprotected sex. The issue can be with the male, the female or both.

If the female can get pregnant with a donor sperm, then the issue is mostly with the male. Male infertility can be classified into the following types:

  • Oligospermia – The sperm production is too low or the quality is poor
  • AzoospermiaInability to produce any sperm
  • Malformed Sperm – sperm is not healthy and cannot live long enough to fertilize an egg
  • Genetic Diseases – Some genetic conditions like myotonic dystrophy can affect fertility
  • Medical Issues – Underlying medical conditions like diabetes, cystic fibrosis and some autoimmune diseases can lead to infertility
  • Hormonal Disorder – When hormone-producing organs such as the pituitary glands or hypothalamus don’t work properly, it can lead to a hormonal imbalance
  • Varicocele – Veins in the testicles are large and lead to overheating of the testicle. This can affect the sperm’s shape or number.
  • Trauma – Any trauma to the testes can affect the sperm production.

Male Infertility Risks

Some men carry a higher risk than others when it comes to male infertility. Some of the factors that can increase your risk of male infertility are:

  • Age over 40 years
  • Overweight
  • Exposure to toxins like mercury, pesticides, lead or radiation
  • Overuse of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana
  • You are on certain medications that can interfere with male fertility
  • Regular or over-exposure to heat like a sauna or hot tub
  • Exposure of tested to heat
  • History of undescended testes
  • Suffering from varicoceles veins
  • Exposure to testosterone injections (usually given for low testosterone)

Tests for Male Infertility

When a couple is unable to conceive even after repeated attempts, they could be suffering infertility issues. It is difficult to identify the main cause of infertility without both partners undergoing tests. Sometimes, the tests may all come back normal and the real cause for infertility or inability to conceive cannot be identified.

Some of the tests used to identify male infertility are:

  1. Sperm Count & Volume – In this test, the sperm count and total volume of sperm per ejaculation are tested. If it is less than 15 million sperm per millimetre of semen or less than 39 million sperm per ejaculation, then it is known as low sperm count. If the sperm count is low, a few other tests will help narrow down the reason for it.
  2. Scrotal Ultrasound – The scrotum holds the testicles, where the sperm is made. The ultrasound will help the male fertility doctor get a good look at the testicles and the structures around them and identify issues with them if any. It also helps check for Varicocele veins.
  3. Hormone Testing – This is a blood test to check the levels of hormones such as testosterone and other hormones responsible for fertility.
  4. Post-Ejaculation Urinalysis – The urine after you ejaculate will be tested for the presence of sperm. If sperm is present, it means the sperm is travelling back after ejaculation instead of travelling out of the penis and into the vagina.
  5. Genetic Test – Infertility can also be genetic. If the semen analysis shows a very poor sperm count, it could be genetic. This test will not only help identify any abnormality in the Y-chromosome but can also help in identifying other genetic disorders or syndromes as well.
  6. Testicular Biopsy – Samples from the testicles are taken for analysis. If the test shows the sperm count is normal, then it indicates a possible block in the sperm’s passage during ejaculation.
  7. Sperm Function Tests – A series of tests will help understand how the sperm functions after ejaculation. This test will check the shape of the sperm (to see if it has a head) and how it survives and moves after ejaculation.
  8. Transrectal Ultrasound – In this test, the doctor will insert a small lubricated wand into the male’s rectum. The wand allows them to see the prostate and check for blockages in the tubes carrying the semen during ejaculation.

What are the Treatments to Correct Male Infertility?

In many cases, male infertility can be corrected using the following treatments:

  1. Surgery – In case of varicocele, vasectomy or blocks in the tubes, surgery can help rectify it. In Azoospermia treatment, the sperm can be extracted directly from the testicles.
  2. Treatment for Infections – If some infection is causing the fertility issue, antibiotic treatments to cure the infections can help.
  3. Treatment for Erection Problems – In case of erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation, medications or counselling can help.
  4. ART– Assisted Reproductive Technology helps extract healthy sperm from the ejaculated semen sample. This extracted sperm can be used in various treatments like IVF, IUI, etc.
  5. Sperm Donor – If no treatment can help the infertility issue, a couple can still conceive using a donor sperm.


Infertility in men is a common issue, though many do not openly discuss it. If you and your partner are facing trouble getting pregnant, it is time to consult a fertility specialist who can guide you on what to do next. Do not hesitate to get the help you need, to start your family.


1. Can infertility in men be cured?

Certain male infertility issues can be cured with appropriate treatments. There is no guarantee all this can lead to a healthy and successful pregnancy as it involves many other factors.

2. What is the most common treatment for male infertility?

Surgery to treat varicocele veins or to extract sperm from testicles that can be used later, is the most commonly used treatment for male infertility.

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