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Infertility: Treatment, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Prevention

April 29, 2024

Do you know infertility rates have been on the rise in recent years? This is mainly due to changes in lifestyle, late marriage and unhealthy eating habits. Several other reasons result in infertility in both women and men. Infertility affects couples socially and economically, causing stress. But with recent developments in the medical industry, infertility is a treatable condition for both men and women. A woman with infertility problems can conceive with the intake of medicines or through surgery. Continue reading to get a clear idea of treatment, causes and diagnosis of infertility.

Book an online Appointment with Dr. Wadedekar Geeta S for all your Fertility concerns

What is Infertility?

When a couple cannot conceive naturally after one year of unprotected sex, then the condition is called infertility. A couple should consult a doctor & start basic investigations if they haven’t achieved pregnancy within one year of regular unprotected intercourse. This is the appropriate time to see your doctor if the age of the female partner is less than 35. If the age of the female is>35 years, consultation should start as early as within 6 months. Primary Infertility: This is a condition where the couple faces difficulty in conceiving despite unprotected sex. Secondary Infertility: Facing trouble in getting pregnant after a successful pregnancy.

Causes of Infertility

Both men and women contribute equally to infertility. There may be some problem in the woman, the man or in some cases, both. In some couples, despite investigations, no exact cause can be attributed. There may be more than one reason that prevents women from getting pregnant. Your doctor can help you figure out the exact reasons for infertility.

Cause of Infertility in Men

  • Ejaculation Problems Erectile Dysfunction, Premature Ejaculation
  • Low Sperm Count
  • Low sperm Motility
  • Testicular pathology like trauma ,infections, hydrocele
  • Causes of Infertility in Women
  • Low Egg Reserve
  • Bad egg quality
  • Endometriosis
  • Ovulation disorder -Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Fibroids & polyps
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Block In the fallopian tube
  • Genetic disorders
  • Thyroid disorders

Other Reasons for Infertility

  • Women who try to conceive in their late 30s have higher chances of infertility.
  • Men or women who are exposed to chemicals or toxins are likely to face difficulties in getting pregnant.
  • STI can delay pregnancy or can lead to abnormal pregnancy outcome like ectopic
  • Alcohol & tobacco consumption is a potential cause of infertility in males by affecting the quality of sperms.
  • Men or women suffering from any chronic disease like diabetes may suffer from infertility.

Diagnosis for Women

  • Firstly, your doctor performs a pelvic examination to find abnormalities or other diseases.
  • A blood test is usually done to check the hormone levels.
  • Your doctor may examine the uterus through hysteroscopy.
  • Your doctor may go for an ultrasound, where an ultrasound probe is inserted
  • through the vagina to get a clear picture of the reproductive organs.
  • A sono hysterosalpingogram test is performed to detect blocks in the fallopian tube.
  • Laparoscopy is performed to identify issues like endometriosis, fibroids, etc., in the uterus, which can be treated in the same sitting.

Diagnosis for Men

  • Semen analysis is carried out to assess sperm quality. It also helps to detect low sperm count and reduced sperm mobility.
  • A blood test is done to check for hormone levels in men.
  • The scrotum of men is examined through an ultrasound scan.

The above fertility testing helps you diagnose the exact reason for not getting pregnant.

Treatments for Infertility

A fertility specialist can help you the best when you suffer from infertility issues. Some may not suffer from any underlying medical issues. Changing their lifestyle and eating habits can increase the chance of getting pregnant. The infertility treatment varies for men and women. Check out the common treatments provided to treat fertility.

Infertility Treatment for Women

  • Women are prescribed ovarian stimulating drugs that increase the chance of conceiving.
  • Surgery is carried out to remove fibroids, polyps and blocks in the fallopian tube.

Infertility Treatment for Men

  • Medicines are prescribed to improve sperm mobility and sperm count.
  • Surgery can help to remove blocks that prevent the flow of sperm.

Common Fertility Treatments

Couples who face difficulty in conceiving with the above medical treatments can opt for assisted reproductive technology. This increases the chance of getting pregnant.

  • In-virto Fertilization: The egg and sperm are retrieved and fertilised in a controlled environment of a laboratory .The fertilized egg is implanted in your uterus.
  • IUI: Intrauterine insemination is a treatment where the sperm is placed directly into the uterus, which increases the chances of getting pregnant.
  • If you suffer from low sperm quality or less egg reserve, then you can very well opt for donor eggs and donor sperm for getting pregnant.

How to Prevent Infertility?

There are several ways you can prevent infertility and conceive naturally without medical intervention.

  • Eat a balanced diet.
  • Follow a healthy lifestyle
  • Stay physically active.Excercise daily.
  • Never delay conception, especially if you have crossed age of 30.
  • A big no to alcohol and smoking.
  • Minimize use of plastic in your food & drinks.
  • Go for regular health check-ups.

Depending on the different causes of infertility, 80 to 90% of people can be treated and help them conceive, but it is important to find an infertility specialist or healthcare provider if you are planning to expand your family.


1. What is the diagnosis of infertility?

Diagnosis varies for men and women. Women with fertility issues are usually diagnosed through an transvaginal scan, blood test, laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, etc. These diagnostic tests help to find the underlying issue in the uterus and other reproductive organs. For men, semen analysis, blood tests and ultrasound are done to diagnose the exact cause of infertility.

2. What are the symptoms of infertility?

The most evident symptom of infertility is not getting pregnant, even with regular unprotected sex for one year. Other symptoms in women are irregular periods, vaginal bleeding, vaginal discharge and lower abdomen pain. In males, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction are the common symptoms of infertility.

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